Multiple choice questions. The paper should have a minimum of one reference including the textbook. (4). The modal model of memory was challenged on the grounds that. What are 2 distinct forms of declarative memory? Answer 5. Memory is not an online learning tool and is not available offline or associated with any other company. involves an association between a stimulus and a response (a tone & lever-pressing behavior), _____________stimulus is an appetitive stimulus that follows a particular behavior & thus makes the behavior become MORE frequent. Question 2. Learning,memory, & their effects on behavior are only possible through _____. Stroke patients with damage to the _____________ had difficulty filtering out irrelevant information, and patients with damage to the __________ had difficulty retaining more than a dew pieces of information in short-term memory. While memory cannot occur without learning, once information has been learned, our memory may allow the learning to decay. You have been playing the piano since you were 5 years old. A degenerative neurological disorder known as ___________ suggests that the temporal cortex plays an important role in storing semantic memories. Welcome to the self-quiz on Memory. To learn the connection between the lever press & the receipt of the food pellet, the neurotransmitter ________ is involved. Peter probably suffered damage to his ________ stream of perceptual learning. Learning and memory Flashcard Maker: Kimberly Brown. Question 8. It appears that the narrow neck of the synaptic spine restricts the diffusion of calcium, such that this becomes a label for the synapses that are to undergo long-term potentiation and strengthening. These receptors allow LTP & the ability to learn quickly, but they also can allow too much calcium into cells when activated by excess glutamate. These questions accompany Chapter 6 (Memory) of the online textbook Psychology: An Introduction). Question 7. Attention is one of the major components of memory. Evidence suggests that as learned behaviors become automatic & routine, they are transferred to the _______________. The CAPACITY of short-term memory can be expanded through techniques such as ________. They can also result in longer-term changes including synthesis of new proteins by the neuron, expansion of the synapse and establishment of new synapses. Learning and memory are intensively studied topics in modern brain and cognitive science. The hippocampal formation plays a role in the process through which __________ memories are formed. After repeated pairings, the tone alone elicits fear. This can be interrrupted by anything that distracts from replaying the message. This is a bright example of: (a) Long-term memory (b) Short-term memory (c) Rote Learning (d) Episodic Memory Answer 3. How does long-term potentiation (LTP) relate to memory? Simmons, in Learning and Memory: A Comprehensive Reference, 2008. ________ cells show am evenly spaced, crystal-like coverage of the entire environment in which the animal is located. The NMDA receptor is a critical component of long-term potentiation. Researchers describe the process of forming memories as occurring in 3 general stages: Information is first processed by __________ memory. There are 3 main processes involved in human memory: Encoding Transforming information into a form that can be stored in memory. In order for information … Damage to the _________ cortex disrupts the spatial receptive fields of place cells in the hippocampus and impairs the animals ability to navigate in spatial tasks. _________ learning involves the learning to recognize things. Revised 11/23/2016. In numerous trials, he is able to identify objects but is unable to locate them in space. a form of learning in which an unimportant stimulus acquires the properties of an important one. Memory is related to learning but should not be confused with learning. The hippocampus is critical to short-term memory, without which new long-term memories cannot be established. The Morris Water Maze is a test of __________ learning when rats are placed in _____________ area(s) of the maze on each trial. What are 2 major categories of stimulus-response learning? The way in which we relate to the world is so heavily influenced by our memories, and in part by the emotions in which we felt when we experienced said event. What are the 2 major pathways in the brain associated with operant conditioning? Choose your answers to the questions and click 'Next' to see the next set of questions. What is the role of the hippocampus in explicit (declarative) learning and memory? High concentrations of calcium favor activation of kinases, with phosphorylation, producing long-term potentiation. The ___________ is responsible for executing motor behaviors, & input from the premotor area & ___________ help to refine motor learning. Short-term memory requires transferof the information tht is to be encoded from the regions involved in working memory to the medial part of the temporal lobe (hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus). stimulus response, motor, perceptual, relational. Study Learning and Memory using adaptive digital flashcards. The OUTPUTS of the hippocampal system come primarily from field _______ and the subiculum. The fact that the CA1 region of the hippocampus has many _________ receptors is both a blessing and a curse. During this performance, your __________ is active. 466. Questions Answer the following questions: Question 1. Most teachers ask questions that require students to merely recall knowledge or information rather than use higher-order thinking skills (Redfield & Rousseau, 1981; Wilen, 2001). grouping pieces of information together like the sections of a social security number or phone number, system that temporarily stores and allows manipulation of info to perform complex activities. Occasionally, memory will unintentionally play a bit loose with the truth regarding what was previously learned. Non-declarative memory includes conditioned associations as well as procedures (such as riding a bicycle). What 2 diseases both involve degeneration of the basal ganglia? The Relationship Between Learning and Memory. Stimulating the ventral stream interfered with short-term memory for_________patterns & stimulating the dorsal streams interfered with short-term memory for ___________. The encoding process includes ___________ which strengthens changes associated w/the initial information that is learned, helping to make a more permanent change to the nervous system (a memory). a learned, reflexive behavioral response to an unconditioned stimulus, a stimulus that elicits an unlearned reflexive response, a stimulus that elicits a learned response following pairing w/an unconditioned stimulus. This is a glutamate receptor which, at normal resting membrane potentials, is blocked by magnesium. How do our students learn? A classically conditioned emotional response is established by pairing a neutral stimulus (a tone) with an ___________ stimulus (brief foot shock). The __________ of the neocortex appears to be where semantic memories are stored. Memory is an active, subjective, intelligent reflection process of our previous experiences. By contrast, de-phosphorylation of receptors in the synaptic spine will result in internalization of receptors (i.e., fewer receptors in the membrane of the synaptic spine). Study Flashcards On Psychology Test- Learning and Memory at Cram.com. What is the role of the NMDA receptor in memory? Why is it that we remember certain events in our life that are triggered by a deep or intense emotion, but we cannot remember what we had for lunch last Tuesday? In the trial with the T-maze, the activity of the ________ neurons encodes both the current location and the intended destination. ________ learning typically involves learning a novel sequence of motor behaviors over repeated trials. Question 3. When first learning to drive a manual transmission vehicle, you are likely using which pathway? Next Learning produces changes in the nervous system by _____ the new information to be used. A short-term memory must have some kind of impact for you to store it. If we teach an animal to make a new response whenever we present a stimulus it has never seen before, the animal must learn to recognize the stimulus (______________) & make the response (______________), & a connection must be established between the 2 new memories (_______________). a learning procedure whereby the effects of a particular behavior in a particular situation increases (reinforce) or decreases (punish) the probability of the behavior. Patients with damage to the left basal ganglia had difficulty filtering out __________ information. Emotions can be a catalyst or an impediment to learning. _______ cells fire when the animal is near one or more boundaries of the environment, such as the walls of box. How is calcium involved in phosphorylation/dephosphorylation in the expression of LTD vs. LTP? The more novel the behavior, the more neural circuits in the _______ systems of the brain must be modified. Semantic memory refers to a major division of long-term memory that includes knowledge of facts, events, ideas, and concepts. Try the following multiple choice questions to test your knowledge of this chapter. How are dendritic spines important in the generation of specificity for LTP ? After being consolidated, the memory is _________ via the persistent changes in the nervous system. ___________memory includes memories that we are not necessarily conscious of and operate automatically. Declarative memory occurs in three stages. Self-Quiz on Memory. a process of consolidation of a memory that occurs subsequent to the original consolidation that can be triggered by a reminder of the original stimulus; thought to provide the means for modifying existing memories. ________ memory is a brief period of time (fractions of a second-few seconds) that the initial sensation of environmental stimuli is initially remembered. These practice questions focus on the psychological and physiological systems of memory as well as the principles of memory construction, encoding, and storage. How does the NMDA receptor act as a coincidence detector? Video gamers often find that they are able to beat difficult stages that require accurate timing of button pushes after taking a break from the game. Imaging studies of London taxi drivers demonstrate that these individual, who undergo intense training regarding London streets, have larger ___________ than non-taxi drivers. REM and ________ are associated w/enhanced aspects of motor learning in some motor learning tasks & may promote ________. What are two key areas of the brain involved in motor learning. High levels of calcium in a synaptic spine activate multiple kinases, including calcium calmodulin kinase II and protein kinase C. These will phosphorylate other enzymes and a.m. PA receptors, enhancing transmission at the synapse. impaired short-term memory does not disrupt long-term memory; Short-term memory has a limited capacity; longer time in short-term memory predicts likelihood of long-term memory; long-term memory has a limited capacity Echoic memory, the ability to "hear" what was just said for a second after it was actually said, is part of _______ memory, Jules experiences a stroke that affects his ability to remember his family and friends. This area is also organized such that areas of the body that require greater innervation are more represented cortically. The _________ controls the behaviors of walking, writing, & dancing. H.M received a surgery to help with his seizures but afterwards he had serious memory impairments and later was found that the original damage was to his _________. In these lessons, you will find actionable, easy-to-apply concepts and activities that can be used immediately. When asked to play an easy piece, you do so with very little effort. Question 1. In ________ conditioning the organism engages in a reflexive behavior. The region of the brain most consistently activated by the type of memory in Question 12 is the: Question 6. Long-term memories can be retrieved throughout a lifetime and strengthened with increased _________. _________ direction cells simply fire when the animals head is facing a particular direction with respect to the distant cues in a particular environment. Further experiments with H.M indicated he still had the ability to learn new information, although this information was limited. Save Answe es Question 20 1 points A screen for proteins involved in memory and learning revealed the role of CREB in learning in Aplysia. Answer 2. _______________ is caused by degeneration of the neocortex of the anterolateral temporal lobe. What is the difference between declarative and non-declarative memory? The memory capacity of _________ memory is limited to a few items, such as the digits in a phone number or the letters in a name. An example is trying to remember a telephone number as you are walking across the room to dial it. Human learning and memory is often conceived as having three stages: encoding, storage, and retrieval (Melton, 1963). In 2013, researchers from Kent State University, Duke University, University of Wisconsin and University of Virginia published a review of hundreds of studies to explore which strategies are most likely to lead to long-term learning. Memory Is a Physical Process. However, he still remembers how to play the piano although he has no memory of ever learning to play. The process of __________ strengthens a connection between neural circuits involved in perception (the sight of the lever) & those involved in movement (the act of lever pressing). Learning to recognize complex visual stimuli involves changes in the _________ association cortex. Learning occurred through experiences. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want! Learning and memory questions. Learningandmemorysharequiteinterestingparallels.Firstandforemost,bothfunctionsexistinandrelyuponth… 465. This course is the result of studying: dozens of books, hours of e-learning courses and I think that it can give you a clear picture on how memory and learning works in the most simplest way. When a behavior is followed by favorable consequences (a ________ stimulus), the behavior tends to occur more frequently, when it is followed by unfavorable consequences (a_________ stimulus), it tends to occur less frequently. Remembering past experiences and find way in a new environment are examples of ___________ memory tasks. Lesions of the __________ disrupt operant conditioning but do not affect other forms of learning. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The most important input to the hippocampal formation is the__________. New drivers learnt to stop at red lights. Chapter 9: Learning and memory: Multiple choice questions: Multiple choice questions. Low to moderate levels of glucocorticoids (stress hormones) facilitates memory, while high levels of steroid suppresses the mechanisms of memory in the hippocampus. The first is working memory which is "volatile" and requires reverberating circuitry to keep it in mind (playing it over and over). The entorhinal cortex contains which kind of cells? 416 Cards – Get help with your Memory homework. The ________ carries dopaminergic axons from the VTA, NE axons from the locus coeruleus, 5-HT axons from the raphe nuclei, and ACh axons fron the medial septum. ___________ conditioning permits an organism to change its behavior according to the consequences of that behavior. Access the answers to hundreds of Memory questions that are explained in a way that's easy for you to understand. filtering out irrelevant information & maintaining relevant information. But do students know what works, and are they using the best strategies? What brain structures are involved in the consolidation & retrieval of declarative memories, both episodic & semantic? Calcium levels in the synaptic spine are critical to determining whether kinases or phosphatases are activated. The ability to retain and recall information is central to improving memory, knowledge and learning. Learning produces changes in the nervous system by _________ the new information to be used. There have been several notable recent trends in the area of learning and memory. Answer 1. Memory. This is a critical process in the medial temporal lobe (especially the hippocampus) and probably necessary in all other areas important in storage of memories. This form of learning is __________ learning. The medial temporal lobe can still be important in retrieving the memory, but damage to the medial temporal lobe will not abolish long-term memories. A rat learns to press a lever when it receives a reinforcing item, such as a food pellet, upon each press. The hippocampal formation consists of the __________, regions called the CA fields of the hippocampus, and the _________ (and it's subregions). What is the effect of stress on LTP and learning? This memory is replayed multiple times within the hippocampus to establish a short-term memory that lasts for many minutes, hours or days. Question 5. The role of the hippocampal formation is ___________- converting short-term memories to long-term memories, Patients with anterograde amnesia (H.M) are capable of a variety of tasks that require what types of learning ? Peter was in a car accident and suffered from damage to his posterior parietal cortex. The brain is continually being shaped through experience. In this case, the ____________ was activated in order to choose the correct face. Memory and Learning with interlinked to each other but many scientists contemplate it by various phenomena. _________ stimulus is an aversive stimulus that follows a particular behavior & thus makes the behavior become LESS frequent. If a reinforcing stimulus does not occur when it is expected, the activity of dopaminergic neurons suddenly ___________. Reconsolidation appears to involve modification of ______-term memories. The hippocampal formation receives input from the _________ regions via the fornix, these inputs select & modulate functions of the hippocampal formation. Conscious of and operate automatically dendritic spines are important in restricting the changes of long-term?. Experienced as a brief period in which an unimportant stimulus acquires questions about memory and learning properties of an important one to hundreds memory. 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