"Non-replaceable light source" means a light source which can only be replaced by replacement of the device to which this light source is fixed; (a) in case of a light source module: a light source which can only be replaced by replacement of the light source module to which this light source is fixed; (b) in case of adaptive front-lighting systems (AFS): a light source which can only be replaced by replacement of the lighting unit to which this light source is fixed; 220.127.116.11.3. 33. 48. The rear fog-lamp(s) can be switched off independently of any other lamp; 18.104.22.168. "Operating tell‑tale" means a visual or auditory signal (or any equivalent signal) indicating that a device has been switched on and is operating correctly or not; 2.19. The apparent surface in the direction of the reference axis of front and rear position lamps, front and rear direction-indicator lamps and retro-reflectors shall not be hidden more than 50 per cent by any movable component, with or without a light-signalling device installed on it, in any fixed position different from the "normal position of use". In length: at the front of the vehicle. Vehicles with non‑conventional suspension, where the engine has to be running. 1.3. The list may include several types of device for each operation. Additional Lamps: For motor vehicles and semi-trailers more than 7.5 metres long, additional to any side repeating direction-indicator lamps(category 5 or 6) permitted by paragraph 6.5.3 of Appendix A, a further pair of side repeating direction-indicator lamps may be fitted approximately mid-way in length between the rear direction-indicator lamps (category 2a or 2b) and the rearmost of any other side repeating direction-indicator lamps or approximately midway along the length of the vehicle. To be considered visible, the lamp must provide an unobstructed view of the apparent surface of at least 12.5 square centimetres. In width: that point on the apparent surface in the direction of the reference axis which is farthest from the vehicle's median longitudinal plane shall not be more than 400 mm from the extreme outer edge of the vehicle. REQUIREMENTS, 4.1. intensity, colour, apparent surface, etc.) The signal shall be given by simultaneous operation of the direction-indicator lamps in accordance with the requirements of paragraph 6.5. above. 123, which allow the vehicle to be used temporarily in a territory with the opposite direction of driving than that for which approval is sought, shall be explained in detail in the owner’s manual. In Length: The outermost edge of the illuminating surface of a cornering lamp must be within 2 m of the front of the vehicle. 6.1.1. 6.6.5. Alternatively the manufacturer shall set the initial aim to a figure that is different from the plated figure where it can be shown to be representative of the type approved when tested in accordance with the procedures contained in Annex 6 and in particular paragraph 4.1. 12. Optional on all other vehicles. 2. 8.10. "AFS control signal" (V, E, W, T) means the input to the AFS in accordance with the paragraph 22.214.171.124. of this Regulation; 126.96.36.199. The front position lamp may be amber in colour if the lamp is “combined” with a “Side Marker Lamp” as defined in paragraph 2.7.5 for Appendix A to this vehicle standard. For the visibility of red light towards the front of a vehicle, with the exception of a red rearmost side-marker lamp, there must be no direct visibility of the apparent surface of a red lamp if viewed by an observer moving within Zone 1 as specified in Annex 4. 3). Blue Dot Tail Light Lens, Glass, w/Chrome Fitting. (as specified in paragraph 5.22.) However, the technical authorities and manufacturers may jointly propose other methods (either experimental or based upon calculations), especially when the test poses particular problems, provided such calculations are clearly valid. Electrical connections: The driving lamps must be able to be lighted only when the main-beam headlamps switch is in the “lamps on” position. The hazard warning signal may be activated automatically in the event of a vehicle being involved in a collision or after the de-activation of the emergency stop signal, as specified in paragraph 6.22. I already have clear corners with amber bulbs and a clear LED third brake light. END‑OUTLINE MARKER LAMP (Regulation No. In each direction a tolerance of ± 3° shall be allowed. The means according to the provisions of paragraph 5.8. of Regulation No. Only 3 left. Nevertheless, when the vertical angle of geometric visibility below the horizontal may be reduced to 5° (lamp at less than 750 mm above the ground) the photometric field of measurements of the installed optical unit may be reduced to 5° below the horizontal. Mandatory on motor vehicles and on trailers of categories O, 188.8.131.52. "Independent lamps" means devices having separate illuminating surfaces, 2/ separate light sources and separate lamp bodies; 2.7.4. 9.3. 184.108.40.206. Tyres shall be inflated to the full‑load pressure specified by the vehicle manufacturer. Arrangement: (C) (B) plus one each side, midway between the front and the rear lamps. 9. ADR containing the requirements for the installation of lighting and light signalling device on all vehicle except those of L category. If any measurement differs from the arithmetic mean of the results by more than 2 mrad (0.2 per cent inclination), a further series of 10 measurements shall be made, the arithmetic mean of which shall constitute the final result. On order from MFG Average time to ship: 38 business days. In the case of the two optional devices mentioned in paragraph 220.127.116.11., if fitted on the side of the vehicle, the above-mentioned requirements of paragraph 6.4.5. shall not be applied. Tell-tale: Optional, If it exists its function must be carried out by the tell-tale required for the front and rear position lamps. 18.104.22.168.1. Two S1 or S2 category devices and one S3 or S4 category device on all categories of vehicles. This Standard is the Vehicle Standard (Australian Design Rule 13/00 – Installation of Lighting and Light Signalling Devices on other than L-Group Vehicles) 2005. Apparent surface based on light‑emitting surface. 2.29.1. The light shall be a flashing light flashing 90 ± 30 times per minute. In height: above the ground, not less than 250 mm nor more than 900 mm (1,500 mm if the shape of the bodywork makes it impossible to keep within 900 mm). Operating tell-tale mandatory for direction indicator lamps of categories 1, 1a, 1b, 2a and 2b. Until 30 months for vehicles of categories M. / Former title of the Agreement: Except for Bosnia and Herzegovina, which notified the UN Secretary-General that it disagrees with the 03 series of amendments. Where the vehicle does not incorporate a headlamp levelling system, the variation in dipped‑beam inclination is identical with the variation in the inclination of the vehicle itself. Presence: Optional on motor vehicles. 22.214.171.124. It is a legal requirement that once conditions improve and you can see more clearly, the front and rear fog lights are switched off. 5/ Measurement of the chromaticity coordinates of the light emitted by the lamps is not part of this regulation. 126.96.36.199. "Device" means an element or an assembly of elements used to perform one or more functions; 2.6.1. 188.8.131.52. 184.108.40.206.2. partial or full contour marking may be applied instead of mandatory line markings, and full contour marking may be applied instead of mandatory partial contour marking. 6.4.9. 6.9. It shall always be possible for the driver to set the AFS to the neutral state and to return it to its automatic operation. An independent non‑flashing warning light. 6.5.5. Tell‑tale optional. 220.127.116.11. 15° above and below the horizontal. "Single and multiple lamps". 18.104.22.168. 5.5. If the vehicle type submitted for approval pursuant to this Regulation meets the requirements of the Regulation in respect of all the devices specified in the list, approval of that vehicle type shall be granted. VARIATIONS TO THE REQUIREMENTS FOR LAMPS IN APPENDIX A, 8.1. Daytime Running Lamp. Vehicles complying with the requirements for Centre High Mounted Stop Lamps in ADR 60/00 need not comply with the requirements for Category S3 Stop Lamps in paragraph 6.7 of Appendix A of this national standard. In case an AFS providing a bending mode is installed, the front position lamp may be swivelled together with a lighting unit to which it is reciprocally incorporated. "Overall length" means the distance between the two vertical planes perpendicular to the median longitudinal plane of the vehicle and touching its front and rear outer edge, disregarding the projection: (c) of coupling devices, in the case of motor vehicles. 6.7. "LED module" means a light source module containing as light sources only LEDs. Red and blue lights are only allowed on emergency vehicles - eg police, fire and ambulance. Number: Lamps complying with ADR 45/… are to be fitted according to the following Arrangement. Presence: Paragraph 6.11.1 of Appendix A does not apply. Geometric visibility, 6.6.7. 22.214.171.124.1. End‑outline marker lamps: yes/no 2/........................................................... non‑triangular: yes/no 2/........................................................... 9.17. Electrical connections. 5.7.2. With the vehicle standing on the measuring site and the wheels on the ground, rock the vehicle by temporarily varying the load. In paragraph 126.96.36.199 of Appendix A of this standard, where it states Mandatory read Optional. 188.8.131.52. "Illuminating surface of a light-signalling device other than a retro-reflector" (paragraphs 2.7.11. to 2.7.15., 2.7.18., 2.7.20. and 2.7.22. to 2.7.25) means the orthogonal projection of the lamp in a plane perpendicular to its axis of reference and in contact with the exterior light-emitting surface of the lamp, this projection being bounded by the edges of screens situated in this plane, each allowing only 98 per cent of the total luminous intensity of the light to persist in the direction of the axis of reference. 4.4. 7/ Nothing in this Regulation shall preclude the Contracting Parties applying this Regulation from allowing the use of white conspicuity markings to the rear in their territories. ALTERNATIVE STANDARDS. full contour marking on vehicles exceeding 2,100 mm in width of the following categories: (a) N2 with a maximum mass exceeding 7.5 tonnes and N3 (with the exception of chassis-cabs, incomplete vehicles and tractors for semi-trailers). 11/ In case of additional "two symmetrically placed lighting units" the horizontal distance may be 200 mm (C in the figure). Arrangement A applies to motor vehicles with a “Total Length’ over 7.5 metres. Vehicles in category M1: 184.108.40.206. For rear retro-reflector, non-triangular, requirements on a TA (O1) category trailer having an overall width not exceeding 980 mm, manufacturers may choose to comply with; the provisions of paragraph 6.14 of Appendix A of this standard with additional position requirement to the options in paragraph 220.127.116.11, such that the distance between the inner edges of the two apparent surfaces in the direction of the reference axis shall be not less than 180 mm; or. 5.9.1. 9/. 18.104.22.168.1. The "0" position corresponds to the initial inclination according to paragraph 22.214.171.124.1. of this Regulation. 4. 126.96.36.199. No red light which could give rise to confusion shall be emitted from a lamp as defined in paragraph 2.7. in a forward direction and no white light which could give rise to confusion, other than from the reversing lamp, shall be emitted from a lamp as defined in paragraph 2.7. in a rearward direction. 188.8.131.52. The "apparent surface" for a defined direction of observation means, at the request of the manufacturer or his duly accredited representative, the orthogonal projection of: either the boundary of the illuminating surface projected on the exterior surface of the lens (a‑b); in a plane perpendicular to the direction of observation and tangential to the most exterior point of the lens (see Annex 3 to this Regulation). The above approval mark affixed to a vehicle shows that the vehicle type concerned has been approved in the Netherlands (E4) pursuant to Regulation No. 6.1.5. Dipped‑beam headlamps : yes/no 2/........................................................... 9.3. Unladen vehicle without a load on the coupling attachment and one person in the driver's seat; 184.108.40.206. one person in the driver's seat: technically permissible load on the coupling attachment in the position of the attachment corresponding to the highest load on the rear axle. 220.127.116.11.2. 2.7.2. ‘SIDE MARKER LAMPS’, 7.2.1. 6.10. Appendix A refers to several UNECE regulations for lighting components. The values measured for the distances shall be such that the individual specifications applicable to each lamp are fulfilled. 18.104.22.168.3. Optional on trailers which are not more than 1,600 mm wide. Tell-tale: In paragraph 6.5.8 of Appendix A, the second paragraph dealing with tell tale requirements for vehicles equipped to tow trailers does not apply. 22.214.171.124. Vertical angle: no specific requirements. Rear direction indicator lamps, rear position lamps, stop lamps (except stop lamps of category S4) and rear fog lamps with variable luminous intensity control are allowed, which respond simultaneously to at least one of the following external influences: ambient lighting, fog, snowfall, rain, spray, dust clouds, contamination of the light emitting surface, provided that their prescribed intensity relationship is maintained throughout variation transitions. If, when the lamp is installed, any part of the apparent surface of the lamp is hidden by any further parts of the vehicle, proof shall be furnished that the part of the lamp not hidden by obstacles still conforms to the photometric values prescribed for the approval of the device as an optical unit (see Annex 3 of this Regulation). only one of these lamps needs to meet the above-mentioned requirements; 5.18.2. where additional lamps for the above functions are fitted and are activated, when the movable component is in any fixed open position, provided that these additional lamps satisfy all the position, geometric visibility and photometric requirements applicable to the lamps installed on the movable component. Every modification of the vehicle type, or of the installation of its lighting or light‑signalling devices, or of the list referred to in paragraph 3.2.2. above, shall be notified to the Administrative Department which approved that vehicle type. This means that they are legal to use. 12.12. 8.7. Measuring procedure. 126.96.36.199. Circuit-closed tell‑tale mandatory. Arrangements (see figure below). White or amber to the front, red to the rear. 5.10. Electrical connections. 13 and 13-H is no longer provided or if the hazard warning signal is activated. Two devices mandatory and two devices optional on all vehicles with a length exceeding 6,000 mm, except vehicles of category M. = 45° to right and to left if there is only one device. The distance between two adjacent side retro‑reflectors shall not exceed 3 m. This does not, however, apply to M1 and N1 category vehicles. "Distance between two lamps" which face in the same direction means the shortest distance between the two apparent surfaces in the direction of the reference axis. The vertical angle below the horizontal may be reduced to 5° in the case of a retro‑reflector less than 750 mm above the ground. Main‑beam headlamps : yes/no 2/........................................................... 9.2. Additional retro‑reflecting devices and materials (including two retro-reflectors not complying with paragraph 6.17.4. below), are permitted provided they do not impair the effectiveness of the mandatory lighting and light-signalling devices. 2.11. CORNERING LAMP (Regulation No. Full fuel replenishment means that the fuel tank must be filled to not less than 90 per cent of its capacity. In the case of a partial contour marking, each upper corner shall be described by two lines at 90° to each other and each at least 250 mm in length. The control for changing over to the dipped-beam must switch off all main‑beam headlamps simultaneously. 188.8.131.52. **/ The value of 5° given for the dead angle of visibility to the rear of the side direction-indicator is an upper limit. 6.20.7. (Reference: C.N.810.2006.TREATIES-5 dated 4 October 2006). excessive angular movement or flicker). On chassis‑cabs the rear end‑outline marker lamps are optional. 8.4. This distance may be reduced to 400 mm where the overall width of the vehicle is less than 1,300 mm. It must not be possible deliberately, from the driver's seat, to stop the movement of switched-on lamps before they reach the position of use. In the case where a headlamp levelling device is necessary to satisfy the requirements of paragraph 184.108.40.206.2., the device shall be automatic. 220.127.116.11.2. in width, by two vertical planes which form an angle of 15° outwards from a plane perpendicular to the vehicle's longitudinal axis and which pass through the intersection of the vertical planes perpendicular to the vehicle's longitudinal axis delimiting the vehicle's overall length and the extreme outer edge of the vehicle. 3.1. 4 watching. All direction-indicator lamps on one side of a vehicle shall be switched on and off by means of one control and shall flash in phase. 18.104.22.168. 22.214.171.124. Circuit-closed tell‑tale mandatory. Before making any measurement wait until the vehicle has assumed its final attitude with the engine running. If several buttons are used to adjust the beam, the button which gives the greatest downward inclination must be installed to the left or below the button(s) for other dipped‑beam positions. ILLUMINATING SURFACE IN COMPARISON WITH LIGHT‑EMITTING SURFACE, (See paragraphs 2.9. and 2.8. of this Regulation), PROJECTED Surface of lens shown flat for convenience VIEW AXIS OF REFERENCE SKETCH B, Surface of lens shown flat for convenience, AND VISIBILITY OF A WHITE LAMP TO THE REAR, (See paragraphs 5.10.1. and 5.10.2. of this Regulation), Visibility of a white lamp to the rear Visibility of a red lamp to the front, Visibility of a white lamp to the rear, STATES OF LOADING TO BE TAKEN INTO CONSIDERATION IN DETERMINING VARIATIONS IN THE VERTICAL ORIENTATION OF THE DIPPED‑BEAM HEADLAMPS. 97; 2.7.12. Defined by angles α and ß as specified in paragraph 2.13.: Since the photometric values required for dipped‑beam headlamps do not cover the full geometric field of vision, a minimum value of 1 cd in the space remaining is required for type‑approval purposes. Parking lamps: yes/ no 2/. The technical requirements of any of the editions of UN-ECE REGULATION No. 3.2.6. where an AFS is fitted on the vehicle, the applicant shall submit a detailed description providing the following information: 126.96.36.199. the lighting functions and modes for which the AFS has been approved; 188.8.131.52. the related AFS control signals and their technical characteristics as defined according to Annex 10 of Regulation No. 6.12.5. If the structure of the vehicle does not permit these upper limits, measured as specified above, to be respected, and if the optional lamps are not installed, they may be increased to 2,300 mm for side direction-indicator lamps of categories 5 and 6, and to 2,100 mm for the direction-indicator lamps of categories 1, 1a, 1b, 2a and 2b. M2, M3 and N category vehicles with conventional suspension. An AFS shall be permitted only in conjunction with the installation of headlamp cleaning device(s) according to Regulation No. In the case where the front fog lamp of category "F3" is part of the dipped beam headlamp or is part of an AFS system, the requirements of paragraph 6.2.6. shall be applied during the use of the front fog beam as part of the dipped beam. (4) Blue lights are prohibited on any vehicle other than a law enforcement vehicle as defined in WAC 204-21-020. A Maryland judge issued an $85 fine to the owner of a Pontiac G8 GT for illegal tail lights, despite being factory-installed and approved by the US Department of Transportation. The emergency stop signal shall be automatically deactivated if the emergency braking logic signal as defined in Regulations Nos. provided that any variation in the photometric characteristics is in compliance with the technical provisions for the lamp concerned. 0.1.1. Any temporary fail-safe replacement of the light-signalling function of a rear position lamp is allowed, provided that the substituting function in case of a failure is similar in colour, main intensity and position to the function that has ceased to operate and provided that the substituting device remains operational in its original safety function. In the absence of specific instructions, the height and orientation of the lamps shall be verified with the vehicle unladen and placed on a flat, horizontal surface, in the condition defined in paragraphs 2.24., 2.24.1. and 2.24.2. satisfy the same colorimetric requirements and have substantially identical photometric characteristics. The variable intensity control is part of the lamp, or part of the vehicle, or split between the said lamp and the vehicle. 184.108.40.206. or, at the discretion of the manufacturer, limits: between ‑1.0 per cent and ‑3.0 per cent, initial aiming: between ‑1.5 per cent and ‑2.0 per cent. 5.8. For directional-indicator lamp requirements on a TA (O1) category trailer having an overall width not exceeding 980 mm, manufacturers may choose to comply with: the provision under paragraph 6.5 of Appendix A of this standard with additional position requirements to the options in paragraph 220.127.116.11, such that the distance between the inner edges of the two apparent surfaces in the direction of the reference axis shall not be less than 180 mm; or. 7.3.3. The illuminating surface area of any retro-reflector that does not transmit light shall be excluded. User #142332 1449 posts. The distance between the inner edges of the two apparent surfaces in the direction of the reference axes shall not be less than 600 mm. "Two lamps" or "an even number of lamps", means a single light‑emitting surface in the shape of a band or strip if such band or strip is placed symmetrically in relation to the median longitudinal plane of the vehicle, extends on both sides to within at least 0.4 m of the extreme outer edge of the vehicle, and is not less than 0.8 m long; the illumination of such surface shall be provided by not less than two light sources placed as close as possible to its ends; the light‑emitting surface may be constituted by a number of juxtaposed elements on condition that the projections of the several individual light‑emitting surfaces on a transverse plane occupy not less than 60 per cent of the area of the smallest rectangle circumscribing the projections of the said individual light‑emitting surfaces; 2.17. 6.8. 4.7. 2.2. 46.37.519: Kit vehicles. is either extinguished, or remains alight without flashing, or shows a marked change of frequency. 5.2.1. Side direction-indicators: yes/no 2/........................................................... 9.8. 18.104.22.168. 22.214.171.124. Variation of inclination with load. 2.9.3 "Illuminating surface of a retro-reflector" (paragraph 2.7.16.) 70 are installed these may be considered, at the discretion of the manufacturer, as part of the conspicuity marking to the rear, for the purposes of calculating the length of the conspicuity marking and its proximity to the side of the vehicle. the inner edges of the apparent surfaces in the direction of the reference axes shall be not less than 600 mm apart. The photometric characteristics of any lamp may vary: (a) in relation to the ambient light; (b) as a consequence of the activation of other lamps, or. Forward facing laws also work for State Legislators and Emergency Responders … 2.16.1. 1/ The approval number indicates that, at the dates when the respective approvals were given, Regulation No. All these measurements shall be made in accordance with paragraphs 126.96.36.199. and 188.8.131.52. Verification of compliance with AFS automatic operating requirements. 6.19.9. The dipped beam may remain switched on at the same time as the main beams. I pulled my lowered 68 Suburban into an all night gas station on a wet foggy night, and when I stepped on the brakes the purple glow illuminated the fog. Where the fitment of a lamp is indicated as optional, this means that it is not mandatory to fit the lamp, but if fitted, the lamp(s) are required to comply with this standard. 184.108.40.206.1. 6.2.7. 220.127.116.11.1. Rear direction-indicators : yes/no 2/........................................................... 9.7. 18.104.22.168. 22.214.171.124. The approval mark shall be placed close to or on the vehicle data plate affixed by the manufacturer. Confirmation of extension or refusal of approval, specifying the alteration, shall be communicated by the procedure specified in paragraph 4.3. above to the Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation. 126.96.36.199.1. The conspicuity markings shall be as close as practicable to horizontal and vertical, compatible with the shape, structure, design and operational requirements of the vehicle. "Ignitor" means an electronic light source control gear to start the arc of a gas-discharge light source. 8.13.1. If you are dazzled by glaring or high beam lights, look to the left side of the road and drive to the left of your lane, slow down or pull over until your eyes recover. 23). SIDE RETRO‑REFLECTOR, NON‑TRIANGULAR (Regulation No. 188.8.131.52. Vol 62 No. 29. As specified in paragraph 6.5.4. or 6.7.4. For side marker lamps, manufacturers may choose not to meet the requirements of paragraph 6.18 of Appendix A, in which case they must meet the requirements of clause 7.2 of this standard. Front direction-indicators: yes/no 2/........................................................... 9.6. For the purpose of this Regulation, light-emitting rear registration plates and the service-door-lighting system according to the provisions of Regulation No. 4.4 out of 5 stars 11. 1.5. 99. "Pair" means the set of lamps of the same function on the left- and right-hand side of the vehicle; 2.27.1. Vertical angle: 15° above and below the horizontal. Front-fog lamps : yes/no 2/........................................................... 9.4. 184.108.40.206. 220.127.116.11. Mandatory. 3.1. In the case of a light-signalling device whose illuminating surface encloses either totally or partially the illuminating surface of another function or encloses a non-lighted surface, the illuminating surface may be considered to be the light emitting surface itself. 18.104.22.168. Vertical angle: 15° above and below the horizontal. Front end outline marker lamps are optional on trailers that do not have permanent structure covering the top of the load carrying compartment and on trailers equipped with load carrying compartment capable of tilting in relation to the rest of the vehicle to load or unload material. 0.2.1. The S3 or S4 category device may not be reciprocally incorporated with any other lamp. of a type of vehicle with regard to the installation of lighting and light‑ signalling devices, pursuant to Regulation No. Furthermore, if there are two lamps, they shall be on the sides of the vehicle. One additional light source or one or more LED module(s), located inside the dipped-beam headlamps or in a lamp (except the main-beam headlamp) grouped or reciprocally incorporated with the respective dipped-beam headlamps, may be activated to produce bend lighting, provided that the horizontal radius of curvature of the trajectory of the centre of gravity of the vehicle is 500 m or less. If it is entirely auditory it shall be clearly audible and shall show a marked change of frequency, at least in the event of the malfunction of any of these direction indicator lamps. 22.214.171.124. 7). 8/ As defined in Annex 7 to the Consolidated Resolution on the Construction of Vehicles (R.E.3), (document TRANS/WP.29/78/Rev.1/Amend.2 as last amended by Amend.4). If none of the three measured results differs by more than 2 mrad (0.2 per cent inclination) from the arithmetic mean of the results, that mean shall constitute the final result. 11/ Vehicle types which do not comply with this provision may continue to be approved until 18 months after the entry into force of Supplement 4 to the 03 series of amendments. 2.7.20. Mandatory on trailers over 1,600 mm wide. 126.96.36.199.1. Position of the approval mark:.................................................................................................... 12. 7.1. "Full contour marking" means a contour marking that indicates the outline of the vehicle by a continuous line; 188.8.131.52.2. Free postage. 6.23. They must be switched on separate from the main beam (high beam) and dipped beam (passing) headlights. For vehicles fitted with filament headlamps, the requirements of the following paragraphs in Appendix A are not applicable: 184.108.40.206 (vertical orientation for dipped beam); 5.4. The ground on which measurements are made shall be as flat and horizontal as possible, so that the reproducibility of measurements of dipped‑beam inclination can be assured with an accuracy of ± 0.5 mrad (± 0.05 per cent inclination).