That is, these theories establish an interval with two axes (for example, positive or negative valence) and include the emotions within that interval. His band often explains psychological music in their songs. Although these emotions are still present in humans today, they may no longer be useful, and may even be counterproductive, as Cosmides and Tooby’s description of the more violent aspects of sexual jealousy illustrates. She proposed that emotions were not built into your brain at birth, but rather they were constructed based on your experiences. Facial expressions. The affect programs are also encapsulated, or cut off from other mental processes (1997, pp. Richards, M., Hardy, R., & Wadsworth, M. (1997). Hopkins, J., Marcus, M., & Campbell, S. B. For example, your brain predicting a churning stomach in a bakery could lead to you constructing hunger. The human genus. This is challenging, since emotions can be analyzed from many different perspectives. One example that Harré uses to demonstrate this is an emotion that depended upon religious beliefs and the norms that develop around those beliefs in the Middle Ages. The somatosensory cortices will respond as if the bodily activity was actually occurring. As the psychologists Ira Roseman and Craig Smith point out, “Both individual and temporal variability in reaction to an event are difficult to explain with theories that claim that stimulus events directly cause emotional response” (2001, p. 4). Moods, on the other hand, are typically not about anything, and at least some of the time do not appear to be caused by a specific stimulus. (2004b). Culture and the categorization of emotions. When understood as a state (like being angry or afraid), an emotion is a type of mental state that interacts with other mental states and causes certain behaviors. Taking anger as an example, in Solomon’s theory, “What constitutes the anger is my judging that I have been insulted and offended” (1977, p. 47). Covert emotion regulation strategies are those that occur within the individual, while overt strategies involve others or actions (such as seeking advice or consuming alcohol). This section closes with a discussion of the ubiquitous nature of facial expressions of emotion and our abilities to recognize those expressions in others. (1996). Roseman, I. J. In R. C. Solomon (Ed.). Some judgment theorists are, however, more accommodating and allow that the bodily response is properly considered part of the emotion, an effect of the judgments that are made. This explanation allows Robinson to maintain the idea that emotions are non-cognitive while acknowledging that humans can have emotions in response to complex events. This is a claim for which there is some evidence, although except for facial expressions, the current evidence is not very strong (see Ekman, 1999; Levenson, Ekman, & Friesen, 1990; Prinz, 2004b). In R. B. Felson & J. T. Tedeschi (Eds.). Somatic feedback theories suggest that once the bodily response has been generated (that is, a change in heart rate, blood pressure, facial expression, and so forth), the mind registers these bodily activities, and this mental state (the one caused by the bodily changes) is the emotion. While everyone who received an injection of epinephrine experienced the same physiological arousal, only those who were not expecting the arousal used context to interpret the arousal as a change in emotional state (Schachter & Singer, 1962). Parkinson, B., Fischer, A., & Manstead, A. S. R. (2005). Entails the early part of the theories of emotion also consider emotions to consciously... 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