Which of these is NOT considered a common family of myiasis producing flies? Moreover, development time in each stage was … As it passes between the three electron carriers, the energy level of the carriers, in relation to oxygen, decrease. If it fluctuates then I can account for any changes in rate of respiration. As you can see, the enzyme lowers the activation energy, which gives a greater number of particles the minimum energy required for the reaction to occur. Below is a diagram showing how I intend to set up the apparatus. The reason for using a 1cm3 syringe as oppose to a 10cm3 syringe is because it has a smaller error margin, and therefore makes it more accurate to use. two spiracular slits. – Concentration of Enzymes/Substrates- Respiration is an enzyme-dependant process and therefore the concentration of enzymes and substrates must be kept constant. You can see some 2nd instar Medical Maggots (TM) that were sold for human maggot therapy HERE. For this reason maggots are being used to determine how the rate of respiration is affected by temperature. The presence of three spiracular slits indicates that this is a third instar larva (second instar larvae each have 2 slits). Air is then drawn in from the surroundings and the bubble moves towards the invertebrates in the boiling tube. This will ensure the experiment is fair throughout, in terms of the temperature of the maggots. The 4 main stages of respiration are glycolysis, the link reaction, the Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. When the temperature is raised, however, their kinetic energy increases so there is a higher likelihood the enzyme-substrate complex can be formed. Carbon dioxide all ready present in the boiling tube. Rattailed maggots fall into which family? Measurements of weight, length, and width of developing larvae are being used to estimate the minPMI [24,25,26]. It is therefore broken down to give 2 molecules of triose phosphate. Start studying ENTO 208 TEST 3. 1Diagram showing how an enzyme speeds up the breakdown of a substrate. 2 hydrogen atoms are then removed from this molecule by 2 nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) molecules to form 2 molecules of pyruvate. As a result the temporary bonds that occur between the substrate and the enzyme cannot form. The spiracles of Muscina have spiracular slits that are not straight and exhibit some form of curvature. There are various set-ups for measuring the oxygen uptake of any organism. The maggots used in these procedures have been sterilized and don't have the risks involved with wild maggots. This is then used to synthesise adenosine triphosphate (ATP). By then, they were everywhere and had apparently traveled. I must therefore also take this into consideration when carrying out my investigation. To ensure the experiment is fair I will allow the maggots time to acclimatise to the new environment. It was observed by day 8 and 9 that some of the larger maggots started to pupate. Maggots not fully acclimatised to their new environment, This would mean that their rate of respiration would not be steady whilst they are in the boiling tubes and would therefore be inaccurate at measuring the oxygen uptake. A lock and a key theory can resemble this in that if the key, i.e. – Temperature- Respiration involves enzymes. This supports the simple prediction I made, in which I stated the rate of respiration would rise which can be clearly seen from the graph. I am using a 1cm3 syringe as this is needed to put the manometer fluid into the manometer. As oxygen is being used up, the volume in the tube will decrease and this will push the manometer fluid towards the tube containing the invertebrates. Ensuring the gauss fit tightly against the sides of the boiling tube can reduce this problem. By using a pictorial key from the CDC website, I would say that this is most likely Lucilia (Phaenicia) sericata, the common green bottle fly. When the bung is first closed there will be extra carbon dioxide in the tube containing the maggots. We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. 6 Larval Identification, continued. 2. I will also make sure I read the position of the manometer fluid at eye level, to prevent inaccurately reading the position of the fluid. It is used for maggot therapy in humans, as the larvae will effectively feed on necrotic tissue and thus aid in wound debridement. 20,000. Below are written several reasons why I have decided to use some apparatus over others as well as outlining why I am using some of the apparatus that I have listed above. 1). Therefore the rate of oxygen consumption will appear to be less. first found the dead body and laid their eggs--the minimum estimate of the post-mortem interval. 2005). – Forms of Respiration- There are two forms of respiration- aerobic and anaerobic. Finally the electron reaches the final electron acceptor, which is also located in the mitochondrial matrix, and is oxygen. It feeds on carrion, and is commonly used in forensic entomology to estimate the time of death. This will be absorbed by the soda lime and the bubble will move as a result. Maggots fed this way are of consistent quality, very high in proteins and we believe irresistible to fish. However, during the steps between the splitting of glucose and formation of pyruvate, energy is released and is then used to make 4 ATP units. – There is a lot of glassware in my experiment so I will make sure I am careful when using them. Using a closed system device of measuring oxygen consumption can eliminate this problem. The enzymes work by lowering this energy, which allows the glucose to be converted to pyruvate during glycolysis, the pyruvate to be converted to Acetyl-CoA during the Link reaction etc. Congratulations to the many viewers who wrote in with the correct answer! Applying the study of insect life cycle to estimating time of death Flies and beetles follow a life ... – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 710b9e-NTU1M The air being drawn in from the outside to push the bubble along is at a lower pressure. The maggots require oxygen for this last stage of respiration, which is what I am measuring to calculate the rate of respiration. The air inside the boiling tube will heat up and therefore will expand. Essay, Ask Writer For Although there are many compounds formed between glucose and the end product, essentially they can all be regarded as one. This is the case for the manometer, which is connected to a control tube. This is because many of the bonds holding the tertiary structure together will break (e.g. A fly is a much more complex stage of the organism than the maggot, and so will respire faster. Increasing the temperature will give the enzymes and substrates more kinetic energy and therefore will increase the rate of respiration. I will then putt some glass beads into the other boiling tube and also connect this to the manometer. Use multiple resourses when assembling your essay, Get help form professional writers when not sure you can do it yourself, Use Plagiarism Checker to double check your essay, Do not copy and paste free to download essays. The diagram below shows how hydrogen bonding can form. I will then take readings for several minutes and then repeat each temperature twice. (They also have anterior spiracles). the rate of respiration increases. E.g. This set up is shown below. During the Link reaction, pyruvate is decarboxylated- i.e. This will provide a safe working environment. Aging Maggots with Spiracular Slits •Anterior and posterior slits can help determine age –Posterior spiracles used to determine instar •1st instar = Heart •2nd instar = 2 slits •3rd instar = 3 slits They munch on rotting flesh, leaving healthy tissue practically unscathed. The two then bind and form an enzyme-substrate complex. Now that we have seen how respiration is able to release energy from glucose, we can consider the role enzymes play in the process. It is during oxidative phosphorylation that most of the energy locked in the original glucose molecule will be released. Sorry, but copying text is forbidden on this website. One set is on the posterior end. This would therefore give you a smaller percentage error. These are detailed below: – I will be using a syringe to insert the manometer fluid into the manometer, which can easily cut you and injure someone. The table below shows the main sources of error and how I have planned to reduce the errors. I must therefore bear this in mind when carrying out my investigation. How many spiracular slits does a first instar maggot have in each posterior spiracle? Usually the organic molecule is glucose, but fatty acids and amino acids can also be used if glucose is not present. 2Distribution curves showing effect of a temperature rise of 10K on the proportion of reactions with greater than 50kg mol-1. This was determined from size, no. Most of the particles will be moving at moderate speeds, others will have slightly greater kinetic energy and some will have slightly less. In forensic investigations, all immature stages of flies (egg, larvae, and puparium) can serve as entomological evidence at death scenes. This is why in my investigation the manometer fluid in the manometer will move towards the maggots. The enzyme has a specific 3-dimensional shape and this means a certain enzyme can break down only substrates with a certain shape. It is in the final stage of respiration that the bulk of ATP is produced, and it is this stage which requires oxygen. If done accurately the position can then be read to 0.5 of a millimetre. The above diagram relates to how the enzymes in respiration work. I will then, if necessary, use a clamp to hold the boiling tubes in place. •Maggots (fly larvae) are remarkable eating machines. However, a water bath can maintain the temperature to a much higher level of accuracy. During some minutes they may be more active so the rate would not be constant. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. This would therefore cause the enzyme to become of no use so the reaction progress will decrease and eventually stop. How many spiracular slits does a first instar maggot have in each posterior spiracle? This is illustrated in the diagram below. This is not something I will be able to control in my experiment, except by keeping the mass of the maggots constant. Found a maggot on my bed after putting snacks away now I’m paranoid but didn’t find no fly or anymore maggots at the moment i don’t know where it could have came from. The spiracles have a number of slits that can be used to determine what instar , or larval stage, the larvae is in; for example, one slit means first instar, two slits means second instar, and three slits means third instar. Larvae use the spiracles to breathe. In the left diagram we can see that the enzyme and substrate are in a mixture. The third stage of the respiration process is known as the Krebs cycle, which is a closed pathway of enzyme-controlled reactions. It is in this stage that the hydrogen atoms being carried by the reduced NAD and reduced FAD are put to use, and the stage is known as Oxidative Phosphorylation. This can be seen in the diagram below. From the preliminary results you can see that as the temperature is raised from room temperature to 35 degrees Celsius, the cumulative volume of oxygen produced over a period of 6 minutes increases- i.e. Cumulative Distance bubble moves (mm) after each minute, Average Cumulative Volume of Oxygen Produced per minute per gram (mm3 min-1 g-1). I predict that as I raise the temperature of the maggots, the rate of respiration will increase. I will then begin the stopwatch and record how far the fluid has travelled after 1-minute time intervals. Simply recording the volume of oxygen produced would only allow me to see that the maggots are respiring, which is not very useful. Like pyruvate, this is then decarboxylated and dehydrogenated in several steps, and eventually oxaloacetate is regenerated to allow the cycle to start again. Glycolysis is the stage in which glucose is broken up, and this occurs in the cytoplasm of a cell. Get Your Custom Essay on, By clicking “Write my paper”, you agree to our, By clicking Send Me The Sample you agree on the, Meal Worm Cellular Respiration Experiment, Effects of Different Substrates on Cellular Respiration, https://graduateway.com/investigating-respiration-maggots-176/, Get your custom The spiracles have a number of slits that can be used to determine what instar , or larval stage, the larvae is in; for example, one slit means first instar, two slits means second instar, and three slits means third instar. 3. Syrphidae 15. So it took a few days to notice maggots under the kitchen rug. I will then connect this boiling tube up with the manometer, as shown in the diagram. The product of the Link reaction (Acetyl-CoA) combines with oxaloacetate, a 4-carbon compound, to form citrate, a 6-carbon compound. This is very significant in my investigation, as this carbon dioxide is what will be absorbed by the soda lime, and will therefore allow me to calculate the rate of oxygen uptake. The fixative caused the maggots to extend fully so that they could be measured to the nearest 0.25 mm by using a small ruler. Many of these set ups are boiling tubes or a test tube connected to a scale. 2. There are many apparatus that I have decided to use over others, and this is because the accuracy of the equipment is much greater. There are several measurements I must take when carrying out the experiment. Therefore increasing the temperature will raise the average kinetic energy of the reactants, which will enable a larger number of reactions to occur. If soda lime was not present, the manometer fluid in the manometer would not move, as the volume of gas is not changing. 2 hydrogen ions will also be drawn up and the oxygen is reduced to water. Maggots are specially raised for this purpose and disinfected prior to use. An enzyme works by reducing the activation energy as shown in the diagram below. The diagram above summarises how the overall reaction rate varies with temperature. The maggots were placed directly into KAA for at least 1 h before measurements were taken. As the maggot gets older and progresses through the life cycle it becomes a more specialised organism. 3. I must therefore keep the mass of the maggots constant. Fish is a very expensive food stock as it is in high demand by the fish meal industry, but they know that it really does produce the best maggots. As temperature is a variable in my experiment, I must make sure the temperature of the maggots remains constant throughout the experiments. Approximately how many species of Sarcophagidae are found worldwide? Once I have carried out the experiment I will open the screw-clip and the three-way tap to allow the fluid to return back to normal. Although it is easy to see the differences between a fly and maggot, I must take into account the age of the maggot increases during the 2 weeks of my investigation. Maggots will be found crawling on or near the remains and may be in maggot masses. Chances are if you found maggots chowing down on a wound, you'd make a beeline to the closest hospital. Finally the interactions between the substrate and active site of the enzyme cause the substrate to break down. The next stage of the process is the Link reaction, which involves many enzymes. I am using a thermometer to ensure that the temperature of the water bath remains constant throughout. – Soda Lime is corrosive so I must ensure it does not come into contact with my skin. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. It cannot however break down lipids due the lipid substrates having a structure that does not allow it to fit in the active site of the amylase enzyme. Batches of Calliphoridae eggs are called: Clutches. 1. This is called an ?- helix and is the secondary structure. In my experiments I am relying on the fact that the maggots will consume air- therefore respiring aerobically, and this will cause the bubble to be pushed towards the maggots. This can be taken as the latest time by which death must have occurred. The enzyme is in the tertiary structure of a protein. your own paper. Length and instar (as determined by the number of spiracular slits) were recorded for each maggot. Therefore I will make sure that I cover the needle back up when I have finished using it. As maggots are cold blooded, have a simple structure and can not effectively control their body temperature, they will respire according to the environment they are in. The diagram below shows the Link reaction and the Krebs cycle. However this only accounts for 3 of the 28 molecules of ATP formed during oxidative phosphorylation. The enthalpy diagram below shows the overall change of glucose into carbon dioxide and water. instead of using 1g of maggots, use 10g. Firstly the glucose, which consists of 6 carbons, is phosphorylated, which is a process requiring energy. This will therefore not give an accurate indication of the volume of oxygen produced, as the bubble will not move as far as it should. Start studying Entomology exam 3. carbon dioxide is removed. This fly is found in most regions of the world, and feeds on dead, decaying tissue. Next I will put 2g of soda lime in the bottom of each of the two boiling tubes, and will then place a gauze into each, which will rest slightly above the soda lime. This must be overcome before any of the glucose can be oxidised, so enzymes are used to lower this energy level. 3. It feeds on carrion, and is commonly used in forensic entomology to estimate the time of death. There are several interesting features of. I must therefore keep this in mind when carrying out my experiments. – Life Cycle- Just like any other living organism the maggots are part of a life cycle. If you need this or any other sample, we can send it to you via email. I will vary the temperature from 10 degrees Celsius to 60 degrees Celsius in 10*c intervals. This means the bonds holding the tertiary structure of the enzyme together will be overcome, and the active site will have altered in shape. After this stage the enzyme-product complex forms, which also requires energy but less so than the enzyme-substrate complex. This can be eliminated by allowing the maggots plenty of time to acclimatise to the new surroundings. The energy released by the electron transport chain is also used to pump hydrogen ions into the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Finally the enzyme and products move away, and the enzyme can then be used again. The spiracles have a number of slits that can be used to determine what instar , or larval stage, the larvae is in; for example, one slit means first instar, two slits means second instar, and three slits means third instar. I predict that as I raise the temperature of the maggots, the rate of respiration will increase. ATP synthase is an enzyme, which shows that respiration is enzyme-dependant and so I must also consider how enzymes work to make this process possible. Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/investigating-respiration-maggots-176/, This is just a sample. By repeating the experiment these factors can be accounted for. You can get your custom paper from An enzyme can be defined as a biological catalyst and is affected by the environment it is in. Respiration is a process in which organic molecules are broken down in several stages to release chemical potential energy. A second limitation is that this method is best used only when the ADD/H used to estimate the minPMI were generated at a nearby temperature [22,23]. I will now go into more detail about how the many enzymes involved in respiration are able to do this. Investigating respiration of maggots. Maggots are specially raised for this purpose and disinfected prior to use. If at times they respire without oxygen- i.e. As well as this I must ensure that when I put the maggots in a water bath, I will ensure that the maggots are enclosed in the water and not above it. If I do drop something I will clear the glass up using a dustpan and brush, whilst making sure I don’t touch any of the shattered pieces of glass. Pyruvate is then dehydrogenated and combined with coenzyme A (CoA) to form acetyl CoA, which is a 2-carbon molecule. You find a Calliphoridae maggot with fleshy spikes all … These work to lower the activation energy of the reactions and their mechanisms will be discussed later on. I will therefore have to work carefully and if I do burn myself I will immediately rinse my hand under cold water. Similarly, an estimate of maggot age at the start of the wandering stage based on the use of growth curves from maggots reared on pork would overestimate the age of venison-reared maggots by ≈5 h. Anderson (1999) used P. regina, among other species, to construct a PMI in the unlawful slaying of black bear cubs, Ursus horribilis (L.). Initially 2 ATP units are needed to break down the glucose (6-carbon molecule) into 2 molecules of pyruvate (3-carbon molecule). From the diagram above you can see the steps in between the break down of glucose and the formation of pyruvate. This will be explained in more detail in the next section. ... spines than those were found in C. villeneuvi (Sukontason et al. The electron transport chain is a network of electron-carrying proteins located in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion. [14] Answer to Parasite Case of the Week 612: fly larva (maggot), Lucilia species. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy, The input space is limited by 250 symbols. But, it might surprise you to find the little buggers may be just what the doctor ordered. This sets up a concentration gradient, and the hydrogen ions then pass back through the membrane into the mitochondrial matrix via protein channels. These insects are primarily used to estimate the post mortem interval (PMI), but can also be involved in the analysis of toxic substances, determining manner of death, and in indicating relocation of a corpse in homicide cases. The temporary bonds, which form during this process, cause a higher tendency for the breakdown of a substance, which in turn reduce the activation energy. 1. The rate will then begin to decrease when the temperature is too high. After completing the experiment for one temperature, I will carry out the experiment for other temperatures. To identify the species the posterior of each maggot was viewed to observe at the peritreme and spiracular slits. Forensic Entomology Notes on page 79 What is Forensic Entomology? The natural antibiotic secreted by blow fly maggots is called: Allatoin 14. From the graph you can see that by increasing the temperature by 10 Kelvins the graph has shifted to the right- i.e. L. ruficornis and P. dux puparia are similar, but the position of the interslit plate between the inner and middle spiracular slits was found to be an important attribute to separate both species. As it is phosphorylated twice, to form hexose bisphosphate, 2 units of ATP are used. Proposed Method of increasing reliability, Measuring Scales to measure mass of maggots, By using measuring scales which measure to a larger degree of accuracy, I can calculate the rate of oxygen consumption per gram of maggot more accurately, Reading the position of the manometer fluid, When reading the position of the manometer fluid it is essential that I do it at eye level and straight on so that I accurately read the position of the fluid. Therefore I will use a spatula when I need to remove some from the bottle. [15] The R groups determine the shape of the active site in an enzyme. •Spiracles are used for breathing, and the possession of spiracles in a posterior location means that maggots … This means that of those substrates that collide with the enzymes, the amount of energy of the impact is more likely to exceed the activation energy. If I do come into contact with any I will immediately wash my hands thoroughly. "You must agree to out terms of services and privacy policy", Don't use plagiarized sources. 3. Glucose is quite a stable molecule, so has a fairly high activation energy. If we now however raise the temperature the graph will look like the one shown below. Physicians in Napoleon's army used the larvae to clean wounds. The other ATP molecules are synthesised due to the process of chemiosmosis. Aim: The aim of my investigation is to see how the rate of respiration of some maggots differs between room temperature and other temperatures, in terms of volume of oxygen produced. This will enable me to account for any anomalous results I may acquire during the experiments. Each turn of the cycle results in 2 carbon dioxide molecules forming, one FAD molecule and 3 NAD molecules are reduced and one ATP molecule is generated. This is because the rate of respiration is dependent on the mass of the maggots, so therefore I must know the exact mass of the maggots. Highly sinuous 12. This however is not due to oxygen consumption of the maggots and will therefore add inaccuracy to the experiment. 2), and a thick, dark incomplete posterior spiracular peritreme (Fig. I can now go into more detailed scientific theory of how the rate of respiration has increased. When soda lime is placed in the tubes, the carbon dioxide given off by the maggots from respiration will be absorbed. In case you can’t find a sample example, our professional writers are ready to help you with writing The spiracles of Muscina have spiracular slits that are not straight and exhibit some form of curvature. Refer to your drawings of larvae. The substrate above fits the shape of the active site, so can bind with it. The spiracles of Muscina have spiracular slits that are not straight and exhibit some form of curvature. The diagram below shows a rough representation of how the structure of the enzyme, in particular the active site, changes when it becomes denatured and why it is not able to work. The substrate moves into the active site of the enzyme. It is used for maggot therapy in humans, as the larvae will effectively feed on necrotic tissue and thus aid in wound debridement. ... please estimate size of mass. This is because for each individual step to occur the activation energy must be overcome. The diagram below shows the glycolytic pathway. The energy profile diagram shows the smaller peaks, which arise as a result of the enzyme. I think this because respiration is an enzyme-dependant process of reactions. Using a measuring scale, which measures to 2 decimal places of a gram would be adequate, but if a more accurate measuring scale could be used, this would make my experiment even more accurate. I will then be able to calculate the volume of oxygen produced per minute per gram. If the screw-clips are not securely around the boiling tubes then some air will enter the boiling tube containing the maggots without passing through the manometer. of maggots; nonhairy and hairy (Fig. (This is the one mainly used for species identification.) As nicely explained by Idzi, Jeff, Florida Fan and Kosta, the appearance of the spiracular plate (straight slits, complete peritreme), and lack of an accessory oral sclerite points to this being Lucilia rather than Calliphora sp.