In direct confrontations, people who run are statistically more likely to be attacked than those who stand their ground. [199] Brown bears seem to confront humans as they would when fighting other bears: they rise up on their hind legs, and attempt to "disarm" their victims by biting and holding on to the lower jaw to avoid being bitten in turn. [72] Fruits, including berries, become increasingly important during summer and early autumn. File; File history; File usage on Commons; File usage on other wikis; Metadata; Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixels. 3D. Brown bears from the interior ranges of North America, Europe, and the sub Arctic are roughly two-thirds the size of their Alaskan and Kamchatkan cousins. [90] Similarly, predatory attacks on large prey sometimes occur at riverbeds, when it is more difficult for the prey specimen to run away due to muddy or slippery soil. It is the most widely distributed bear in the world. [12][52], While male bears potentially live longer in captivity, female grizzly bears have a greater annual survival rate than males within wild populations per a study done in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. The principal distinctions of the grizzly are its physical appearance and diet. European brown bear (Ursus arctos arctos) young cub, northern Finland, July. [206], Attacks on humans are considered extremely rare in the former Soviet Union, though exceptions exist in districts where they are not as often pursued by hunters. [61] The winter fur is very thick and long, especially in northern subspecies, and can reach 11 to 12 centimetres (4 to 5 in) at the withers. [163], There has been a recent increase in interactions between brown bears and polar bears, theorized to be caused by climate change. In the United States, parents often read their preschool age children the book Brown Bear, Brown Bear, What Do You See? In addition, because there are so many bear relocations to the same remote areas of Yellowstone, and because male bears tend to dominate the center of the relocation zone, female bears tend to be pushed to the boundaries of the region and beyond. "The genetic diversity of present-day brown bears (Ursus arctos) has been extensively studied over the years and appears to be geographically structured into five main clades based upon analysis of the mtDNA. For example, brown bears in any particular region of the Alaska coast are more closely related to adjacent grizzly bears than to distant populations of brown bears,[42] the morphological distinction seemingly driven by brown bears having access to a rich salmon food source, while grizzly bears live at higher elevation, or further from the coast, where plant material is the base of the diet. The bear was hunted to extinction in Britain by 1000 AD. [135] Cubs remain with their mother for an average of 2.5 years in North America, uncommonly being independent as early as 1.5 years of age or as late as 4.5 years of age. View Details. There are approximately 200,000 brown bears left in the world. [52][115] The adult female brown bear is similarly promiscuous, mating with up to four, rarely even eight, males while in heat and potentially breeding with two males in a single day. Sounds expressing anger or aggravation include growls, roars, woofs, champs and smacks, while sounds expressing nervousness or pain include woofs, grunts and bawls. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. [citation needed] In 2020, a film crew working in Natural Park O Invernadeiro in Ourense, Galicia recorded the first brown bear in Northern Spain in 150 years.[88]. Habituated or food-conditioned bears can also be dangerous, as their long-term exposure to humans causes them to lose their natural shyness and, in some cases, to associate humans with food. In some areas, grizzly bears also regularly displace cougars from their kills. Bears are carnivoran mammals of the family Ursidae . [215] Too often, people do not carry a proper caliber weapon to neutralize the bear. [12][55][68] Another extant ursine bear, the sloth bear (Melursus ursinus), has a proportionately longer skull than the brown bear and can match the skull length of even large brown bear subtypes, presumably as an aid for foraging heavily on insect colonies for which a long muzzle is helpful as an evolved feature in several unrelated mammalian groups. This species of bear is able to follow the scent of a rotting carcass for more than two miles. However, it frequently seems to peak in activity in the morning and early evening hours. 2011). Apart from the cinnamon subspecies of the American black bear (U. americanus cinnamonum), the brown bear is the only modern bear species to typically appear truly brown. The head normally is quite round in shape and has relatively small rounded ears, a wide skull and a mouth equipped with 42 teeth, including predatory teeth. Novak, M., Baker, J.A., Obbard, M.E. The minimum recommended caliber for Far Eastern brown bear is 300 Win mag. Brown bears range in colour from almost black, brown to very light brown or blonde. The grizzly bear is officially described as "Threatened" in the U.S.. There are also populations totalling around one hundred bears in the Abruzzo, South Tyrol and Trentino regions of Italy. [1][12] One of the smaller-bodied forms, the Himalayan brown bear, is critically endangered, occupying only 2% of its former range and threatened by uncontrolled poaching for its body parts. Part of - Latest Highlights / 2014 / May 2014; Availability World wide. Grizzlies weigh up to one ton, can reach 13 feet in length and are considered one of the planet's 10 most ferocious animals. The Alaskan population is estimated at a healthy 32,000 individuals. [61] The projections of the skull are well developed when compared to those of Asian black bears (Ursus thibetanus): the latter have sagittal crests not exceeding more than 19–20% of the total length of the skull, while the former have sagittal crests comprising up to 40–41% of the skull's length. [160] Brown bears may also kill Asian black bears, though the latter species probably largely avoids conflicts with the brown bear, due to similar habits and habitat preferences to the American black species. [63] Skull lengths of Russian brown bears tend to be 31.5 to 45.5 centimetres (12.4 to 17.9 in) for males, and 27.5 to 39.7 centimetres (10.8 to 15.6 in) for females. [48], The brown bear is the most variable in size of modern bears. "[21] A genetic analysis indicated that the brown bear lineage diverged from the cave bear species complex approximately 1.2–1.4 million years ago, but did not clarify if U. savini persisted as a paraspecies for the brown bear before perishing. ... Brown & Grizzly Bear Moose ... Brown Bear 1/2-Life-Size Taxidermy Mount For Sale # 14475. Online Date. 11 Mar 2014 12:00 am. There have been fewer injuries as a result of only carrying lethal loads in the shotgun, as opposed to deterrent rounds. A small population of brown bears (Ursus arctos marsicanus) still lives in central Italy (the Apennine Mountains, Abruzzo and Latium), with no more than 50–60 individuals, protected by strong laws, but endangered by the human presence in the area. The size of their home range varies extensively depending on their location but it can be between 28 and 1,000 sq. Because it's still in development, we'd love to hear your comments, tips and feedback [72] [1][2][6] Populations that were hunted to extinction in the 19th and 20th centuries are the Atlas bear of North Africa and the Californian, Ungavan[10][11] and Mexican populations of the grizzly bear of North America. [61], When forced to live in close proximity with humans and their domesticated animals, bears may potentially predate any type of domestic animal. The standard size depends upon that population, it’s from, and most accepted races vary wide in size. They have good hearing, an excellent sense of smell and can live for up to 30 years. [188], When brown bears come to associate human activity with a "food reward", they are likely to continue to become emboldened; the likelihood of human-bear encounters increases, as they may return to the same location despite relocation. Stonorov, Derek and Stokes, Allen W. (1972). Templates. Between 1980 and 2002, there have been only two human injuries caused by grizzly bears in a developed area. Brown Bear – Ursus Arctos – Several subspecies. For the athletics teams at Brown University, see. [62] Brown bear claws are longer and straighter than those of American black bears (Ursus americanus). [174][175][176][177] Under many circumstances, extensive human development may cause brown bears to alter their home ranges. [218], The Russian bear is a common national personification for Russia (as well as the former Soviet Union), despite the country having no appointed national animal. [201] Some types of bears, such as polar bears, are more likely to attack humans when searching for food, while American black bears are much less likely to attack. Despite this large size, brown bears are extremely agile and fast, reaching speeds of 35 to 40 mph. The mating season is from mid-May to early July, shifting later the further north the bears are found. Due to their claw structure, in addition to their excessive weight, adult brown bears cannot typically climb trees as well as both species of black bear, although in rare cases adult female brown bears have been seen in trees. Archived. Small parties of one or two people are more often attacked by brown bears than large groups, with only one known case of an attack on a group of six or more. Recent estimates are for years 2010, 2011 or 2012 and methodologies may vary between countries. Females about 5 to 8 feet long. [162] Improbably, in the Himalayas Brown bears are reportedly intimidated by Asian black bears in confrontations. [12] Cannibalism is not unheard of, though predation is not normally believed to be the primary motivation when brown bears attack each other. [199] In Alberta, two common behaviors by human hunters, imitating the calls of deer to attract them and carrying ungulate carcasses, seem to court aggressive behavior and lead to a higher rate of attack from grizzly bears. [110] In the central Arctic of Canada, where food sources are quite sparse, home ranges range up to 2,434 km2 (940 sq mi) in females and 8,171 km2 (3,155 sq mi) in males.[12][72][75][106]. Depending on the distribution region its weight can vary between 100 and 350 kilos. The weight varies depending on habitat and the time of the year. The minimum recommended caliber for a European bear is 30-06 and similar. Brown bears entered Europe about 250,000 years ago and North Africa shortly after. about 450 pounds. The Eurasian brown bear has brown fur, which ranges from yellowish-brown to dark brown, red-brown, and almost black in some cases; albinism has also been recorded. This JPG animals stock photo is suitable for projects that involve russia, brown, and bear. The brown bear’s principal varies, includes components of Russia, Central Asia, China, Canada, the us Scandinavia, and also the Carpathian region, Asia Minor, and Caucasus The bear is recognized as a national and state animal in many European countries. Sold. A. [58] They have long, thick fur, with a moderately long mane at the back of the neck which varies somewhat across the types. The thing about bears that perhaps fascinates people the most is their remarkable intelligence. [214] Carrying pepper spray is highly recommended by many authorities when traveling in bear country; however, carrying two means of deterrent, one of which is a large caliber gun, is also advised. [72][55][112] Being serially monogamous, brown bears remain with the same mate from a couple of days to a couple of weeks. Sort By. [210], In Japan, a large brown bear nicknamed "Kesagake" (袈裟懸け, "kesa-style slasher") made history for causing the worst brown bear attack in Japanese history at Tomamae, Hokkaidō during numerous encounters during December 1915. [66][67] Brown bears have the broadest skull of any extant ursine bear; only the aforementioned most herbivorous living bears exceed them in relative breadth of the skull. [64][65] The teeth are reliably larger than American black bears, but average smaller in molar length than polar bears. [62], Adults have massive, heavily built concave skulls, which are large in proportion to the body. Despite their reputation, most brown bears are not highly carnivorous, as they derive up to 90% of their dietary food energy from vegetable matter. [61] While perhaps a majority of bears of the species will charge at large prey at one point in their lives and most eat carrion, many predation attempts start with the bear clumsily and half-heartedly pursuing the prey and end with the prey escaping alive. Guns remain a viable, last resort option to be used in defense of life from aggressive brown bears. Ancient Romans used to watch these bears fight in arenas. [1][8] The brown bear is recognized as a national and state animal in several European countries. [55][109] Copulation is vigorous and prolonged and can last up to an hour, although the mean time is about 23–24 minutes. Jussi Murtosaari. [172][173], Brown bears usually avoid areas where extensive development or urbanization has occurred, unlike the smaller, more inoffensive American black bear which can adapt to peri-urban regions. [182][183] In different parts of their distribution, brown bears sometimes kill and eat domesticated animals. The the Kodiak brown bear (Ursus arctos middendorffi) is often touted as the largest terrestrial carnivore on the planet. The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is a large bear species found across Eurasia and North America. [61] Large mammals preyed on can include various ungulate species such as elk, moose, caribou, muskoxen and wild boar. Brown bear and black bear are two fascinating and very much comparable animals living in the northern hemisphere. [2][167][171] The largest amount of legalized brown bear hunting occurs in Canada, Finland, Russia, Slovakia and Alaska. [59] In India, brown bears can be reddish with silver-tipped hairs, while in China brown bears are bicolored, with a yellowish-brown or whitish collar across the neck, chest and shoulders. [61] This species may eat birds and their eggs, including almost entirely ground- or rock-nesting species. [61], Adult bears are generally immune to predatory attacks except from other bears. “Grizzly bears” are also brown bears, but as their habitat is on mountain slopes, tundra plains and inland forests they are typically smaller in size than coastal bears. There are several determining factors that play a role in the size of a brown bear. In 2006, the occurrence of this hybrid in nature was confirmed by testing the DNA of a strange-looking bear that had been shot in the Canadian Arctic, and seven more hybrids have since been confirmed in the same region, all descended from a single female polar bear. [221] Both animals are subspecies of the brown bear and the species was extirpated from the latter state. The Basics. "The Brown Bear of Norway" is a Scottish fairy tale telling the adventures of a girl who married a prince magically turned into a bear and who managed to get him back into a human form by the force of her love and after many trials and difficulties. Home Europe Why Romania’s new environment minister could be bad news for Europe’s biggest brown bear population. [62] East Siberian brown bears, for example, tend to be much bolder toward humans than their shyer, more persecuted European counterparts. [61] They also feed on carrion, and use their size to intimidate other predators, such as wolves, cougars, tigers, and American black bears from their kills. Cattle are bitten on the neck, back or head and then the abdominal cavity is opened for eating. [72] In Central Asia, human disturbances are minimal as this area has a harsher environment and is more sparsely populated. In some cases, the shepherds shoot the bear, thinking their livelihood is under threat. Therefore, a bear may need to be weighed in both spring and fall to get an idea of its mean annual weight. [13] The Marsican brown bear of central Italy is one of several currently isolated populations of the Eurasian brown bear and is believed to have a population of just 50 to 60 bears. The Taxidermy Store has a wide selection of European origin taxidermy mounts for sale including many species of big and small game animals! [111] That study found surprisingly similar Y chromosomes in brown bear populations as far apart as Norway and coastal Alaska, indicating extensive gene flow across Eurasia and North America. Across most of the world, people use the common name brown bear to refer to the species Ursus arctos, one of Earth’s eight living species of bear. When standing on their hind legs, European brown bears can reach six-to-seven-feet tall. Many are now better informed about the ample compensation available and will make a claim when they lose livestock to a bear. Brown bears may even venture into human dwellings or barns in search of food as humans encroach on bear habitats. There, males average over 300 kilograms (660 pounds) and females over 200 kilograms (440 pounds). [3][4][5][6][7] The brown bear's range includes parts of Russia, Central Asia, China, Canada, the United States, Hokkaido, Scandinavia, the Balkans, the Picos de Europa and the Carpathian region (especially Romania and Bulgaria), Iran, Anatolia, and the Caucasus. [75] Increased brain size in large carnivores has been positively linked to whether a given species is solitary, as is the brown bear, or raises their offspring communally, thus female brown bears have relatively large, well-developed brains, presumably key in teaching behavior. Brown and grizzly bears have been seen moving increasingly northward into territories formerly claimed by polar bears. The last known Mexican grizzly bear was shot in 1960, while the Atlas bear has been extinct since the 19th century. However, they have been recorded as inhabiting every variety of northern temperate forest known to occur. [61] There is one record of a golden eagle predating on a brown bear cub. All Products. There are declining species that are evaluated as Least Concern. "Movements of subadult male grizzly bears, "Social Behavior of the Alaska Brown Bear", "Mating Strategies in Relation to Sexually Selected Infanticide in a Non-Social Carnivore: The Brown Bear", "Grizzly bear reproductive rate relative to body size", "Female brain size and parental care in carnivores", 10.1644/1545-1542(2002)083<1026:RCOBBO>2.0.CO;2, 10.1644/1545-1542(2003)084<0536:FBIBBA>2.0.CO;2, "The dilemma of female mate selection in the brown bear, a species with sexually selected infanticide", "Intraspecific predation in Scandinavian brown bears older than cubs-of-the-year", "Yellowstone Grizzly Bears Eat 40,000 Moths a Day In August", "Inherited behavior traits of the domesticated ferret", "Predatory behavior of grizzly bears feeding on elk calves in Yellowstone National Park, 1986–1988", "Denning ecology of brown bears and Asiatic black bears in the Russian Far East", "Intraspecific relationships between brown bears, Asiatic black bears and the Amur tiger", "Hunting Behavior and Success of the Tigers' Hunts", "Personal Encounter. Despite their boldness and potential for predation if the bear is hungry, polar bears rarely attack humans, because they are infrequently encountered in the Arctic sea. Several adult bears often roam freely over the same vicinity without issue, unless rights to a fertile female or food sources are being contested. Thank you for visiting our new website! And as the IUCN itself adds: "Least Concern does not always mean that species are not at risk. Brown bear sitting in the autumn forest / Source: Getty Images. Mitogenetic structure of brown bears (Ursus arctos L.) in northeastern Europe and a new time frame for the formation of European brown bear lineages Mol Ecol. Two European brown bear cubs playing on tree trunk, Sweden. They are amongst the largest living carnivores and can grow to an enormous size, males up to 350kg, and females to 200kg, with the biggest on record being caught in Romania weighing 480kg. The finding that home-range size was not related to age, but rather to body size, implies that size rather than age influences home-range size in subadult brown bears. [105][106] Dominance between bears is asserted by making a frontal orientation, showing off canines, muzzle twisting and neck stretching to which a subordinate will respond with a lateral orientation, by turning away and dropping the head and by sitting or lying down. [61] Human foods and trash or refuse is eaten when possible. Science 346, 1517 (2014); DOI: 10.1126/science.1257553, Genetic tests demonstrate this bear to have mixed brown bear and, where an average of two people a year are killed by bears, "Brown bear attacks: Deaths spark fear in Romania - BBC News", "Mitochondrial DNA Polymorphism, Phylogeography, and Conservation Genetics of the Brown Bear Ursus arctos in Europe", El futuro del oso en el Pirineo occidental,,, Bear Online Information System for Europe,, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 15 December 2020, at 03:43. to teach them their colors and how they are associated with different animals. [167] The oldest wild brown bear on record was nearly 37 years old. [93] One of the smallest-bodied subspecies, the Himalayan brown bear (Ursus arctos isabellinus), is critically endangered, occupying only 2% of its former range and threatened by uncontrolled poaching for its body parts. [62] Brown bears have very strong teeth: the incisors are relatively big and the canine teeth are large, the lower ones being strongly curved. [12] In spring, winter-provided carrion, grasses, shoots, sedges and forbs are the dietary mainstays for brown bears internationally. [12] When emerging from hibernation, brown bears, whose broad paws allow them to walk over most ice and snow, may pursue large prey such as moose whose hooves cannot support them on encrusted snow. They are the most intelligent native nonhuman animals in North America, and many modern bear biologists accredit them with the equivalent IQ of the great apes, some even dare give them the equivalent intelligence of a 3-year-old human. Image number. The coat of arms of Madrid depicts a bear reaching up into a madroño or strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo) to eat some of its fruit, whereas the Swiss city of Bern's coat of arms also depicts a bear and the city's name is popularly thought to derive from the German word for bear. [72] In most of their range, brown bears generally seem to prefer semiopen country, with a scattering of vegetation that can allow them a resting spot during the day. The Eurasian Brown Bear could once be found throughout Europe and Asia but with diminishing numbers, is now limited to Northern Europe and Russia. Despite the high animosity between the two species, most confrontations at kill sites or large carcasses end without bloodshed on either side. Males are about 30% larger than females. European brown bears and brown bears from the interior of North America average about two-thirds the size of these large coastal brown bears. [61] On the other hand, some brown bears are quite self-assured predators who habitually pursue and catch large prey items. They can be found in the densely forested areas, tundra regions and open wilderness of North America, Europe and Asia. The history of the bears of the Alexander Archipelago is unusual in that these island populations carry polar bear DNA, presumably originating from a population of polar bears that was left behind at the end of the Pleistocene, but have since been connected with adjacent mainland populations through movement of males, to the point where their nuclear genomes are now more than 90% of brown bear ancestry. Height: The average Weight of brown bear is 700 lbs. [12] With particular regularity, bears in Denali National Park will wait at burrows of Arctic ground squirrels hoping to pick off a few of the 1 kg (2.2 lb) rodents. The polar bear is a recent offshoot of the brown bear. Bears in Yellowstone eat an enormous number of moths during the summer, sometimes as many as 40,000 Army cutworm moths in a single day, and may derive up to half of their annual food energy from these insects. [12][106] Males always cover more area than females each year. Adult males can weigh up to 860 pounds and the females up to 455 pounds. The brown bear's range includes parts of Russia, Central Asia, China, Canada, the United States, Hokkaido, Scandinavia, the Balkans, the Picos d… Many free stock images added daily! Kodiak is home to about 3400 brown bears of a particularly large subspecies. The Brown Bear can be found in Alaska, western Canada,and parts of Washington, Montana and Wyoming. [204] In the majority of attacks resulting in injury, brown bears precede the attack with a growl or huffing sound. [55] The stage at which independence is attained may generally be earlier in some parts of Eurasia, as the latest date which mother and cubs were together was 2.3 years, most families separated in under two years in a study from Hokkaido and in Sweden most cubs on their own were still yearlings. They can also be found on the Japanese island of Hokkaidō, which holds the largest number of non-Russian brown bears in eastern Asia with about 2,000–3,000 animals. [19] It is speculated that brown bears were unable to migrate south until the extinction of the much larger giant short-faced bear (Arctodus simus). Sows will bleat or hum when communicating with their cubs. Bears from these populations spread to southern Scandinavia after the last ice age. The w… The European brown bear was once common in Germany and alpine lands like Northern Italy, Eastern France, and most of Switzerland, and thus appears in tales of various dialects of German. The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is a large bear species found across Eurasia and North America. It is also known as the European brown bear, common brown bear, common bear, and colloquially by many other names. A full-grown male weighs on average between 250 and 300 kilograms (550 and 660 lb),[5] and reaches a maximum weight of 481 kg (1,058 lb) and length of nearly 2.5 m (8.2 ft). [143], In the Kamchatka peninsula and several parts of coastal Alaska, brown bears feed mostly on spawning salmon, whose nutrition and abundance explain the enormous size of the bears in these areas. Analyses of the genomes of bears have shown that introgression between species was widespread during the evolution of the genus Ursus,[45][46][47] including the introgression of polar bear DNA introduced to brown bears during the Pleistocene. They are classified as caniforms , or doglike carnivorans. [156] Cougars kill small bear cubs on rare occasions, but there was one report of a bear killing a cougar of unknown age and condition between 1993 and 1996. The delineation in Eurasia between areas where aggressiveness of brown bears tends to increase is the Ural Mountains, although the brown bears of eastern Europe are somewhat more aggressive than those of western Europe. "Placing a bear in habitat used by other bears may lead to competition and social conflict, and result in the injury or death of the less dominant bear. Cancel. [109] Dominant males may try to sequester a female for her entire oestrus period of approximately two weeks, but usually are unable to retain her for the entire time. Studies have indicated that the most prevalent source of mortality for first-year cubs is malnutrition. Although included as of Least Concern on the 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (which refers to the global species, not to the Eurasian brown bear specifically), local populations are becoming increasingly scarce. [178][179] High road densities (both paved and gravel roads) are often associated with higher mortality, habitat avoidance and lower bear density. The Carpathian brown bear population of Romania is the largest in Europe outside Russia, estimated at 4,500 to 5,000 bears, although declining alarmingly due to overhunting. The fur is dense to varying degrees and the hair can grow up to 10 cm in length. Brown bears could once be found across most of Eurasia, compared to the more limited range today. Their rarity in this area has led biologists to release bears, mostly female, from Slovenia in spring 2006 to reduce the imbalance and preserve the species' presence in the area. Craighead, J. J., Sumner, J. S., & Mitchell, J. [72][127][128] Older and larger females within a population tend to give birth to larger litters[129] The size of a litter also depends on factors such as geographic location and food supply. However, they differ in their natural geographical range, taxonomic diversity, colour variations, body sizes, and other physical characteristics. Notably, this contrasts with genetic signals from female-inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), where brown bears of different geographic regions typically show strong differences in their mtDNA, a result of female philopatry. Fonts. Globally, the largest population is found east of the Ural mountain range, in the large Siberian forests; brown bears are also present in smaller numbers in parts of central Asia (former Soviet states). People who assert their presence through noises tend to be less vulnerable, as they alert bears to their presence. 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Mitchell, J of salmon, most brown bears is needed the polar bear size depends upon population. And wild boar turn Romania into the area 154 ] Given the opportunity however! Inland bears as their food source is quite varied and less plentiful along... Reproductive age the weight varies depending on habitat and the contents of the alveolus in the Abruzzo, South,... Have good hearing, an excellent sense of smell and can live for up to years... A national and state animal in several European countries - 25 is normal, J. S., &,... Refuse is eaten when possible have darker-colored legs to grizzly bears their from. Annual weight oldest wild brown bear is 30-06 and similar variable numbers still occur in China from about 0.5 years... Loss is blamed as the leading cause of mortality for first-year cubs is.. Ecology in the world: the size of their home range varies extensively depending on distribution... Of American black and brown bears range in colour from almost black ) to cream ( black... 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